renminbi Jie Zhao/Getty Images

تقهقر الرنمينبي

نيويورك ــ في إبريل/نيسان من عام 2014، ذكرت الإيكونوميست أن "عولمة اليوان تبدو أمرا لا هوادة فيه ولن يستطيع أحد وقفها". بالفعل تضاعف استخدام اليوان أو الرنمينبي في المدفوعات العالمية بين ذلك الوقت وأغسطس/آب من عام 2015 ليصل إلى 8,2% من إجمالي تلك المدفوعات، ما جعل عملة الصين رابع العملات الأكثر استخداما في العالم.

لكن منذ ذلك الحين، تراجع هذا النمو بصورة كاملة تقريبا، إذ هبط نصيب الرنمينبي في المدفوعات العالمية إلى 6,1%، ليهوي إلى المركز السابع. كما انخفض استخدامه في أسواق السندات العالمية بمقدار 45% مقارنة بالارتفاع القياسي الذي بلغه في 2015. كذلك انخفضت الإيداعات بالرنمينبي في بنوك هونج كونج بمقدار النصف. وبينما كانت 35% من معاملات تجارة الصين عبر الحدود تجري بعملة الرنمينبي عام 2015 (معظم الجزء الباقي من التجارة كان بالدولار)، فقد انخفضت هذه النسبة إلى نحو 12% اليوم.

يعكس هذا التراجع في حظ الرنمينبي أربعة عوامل على وجه الخصوص:

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