Schulden, Diktatur und Demokratisierung

NEW YORK – Nach Saddam Husseins Sturz setzten die Vereinigten Staaten erfolgreich durch, dass Iraks Gläubiger einen Großteil der irakischen Auslandsschulden abschrieben. Führende US-Beamte, darunter Paul Wolfowitz, der spätere Präsident der Weltbank, vertraten die Auffassung, dass die Iraker nicht unter Verpflichtungen leiden sollten, die der Diktator zu seiner eigenen Bereicherung und zur Unterdrückung seiner Untertanen eingegangen war. Die Befürworter einer Abschreibung bezeichneten die irakischen Schulden im Sinne einer langjährigen internationalen Rechtsdoktrin als “verabscheuungswürdig”.. Demzufolge waren die Kreditgeber nicht mehr durch internationale Rechtsnormen geschützt.

Mit dem erneuten Wandel im Nahen Osten kehrt auch das Problem der verabscheuungswürdigen Schulden zurück. Aber nicht alle Schulden, die von einem ehemaligen Unterdrückungsregime gemacht wurden, können allein aus diesem Grund schon als “verabscheuungswürdig” eingestuft werden. Die Frage lautet: Welcher Anteil des Geldes ging an sinnvolle Entwicklungsprojekte, und wie viel statt dessen in die Taschen des Regimes und seines Führers?

Im Fall von Ägypten beispielsweise sagte im Januar Faiza Abu al-Naga, der Minister für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit, dass Mubarak selbst die Auslandsverschuldung des Landes in der Hand hatte und “den ganzen Vorgang überblickte”.. Auch wenn dies wahr ist, muss daran nichts Unrechtes sein. Immerhin waren die Geldzahlungen der USA und anderer westlicher Staaten an Ägypten seit langem mit geopolitischen Motiven durchsetzt, und die Verwendung finanzieller Mittel zur Unterstützung eines loyalen Verbündeten in einer instabilen Region ist nicht per se verabscheuungswürdig oder unrechtmäßig.

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