L’Europe trompe-la-mort

Alors que l’Union européenne s’apprête à célébrer le 50e anniversaire du Traité de Rome à la fin du mois, beaucoup de gens pensent qu’elle est à bout de souffle. L’intégration européenne aura quelque peu vécu son Waterloo en 2005, lorsque les référendums des Pays‑Bas et de la France ont torpillé, contre toute attente, le projet de constitution.

Si les médias ont polarisé l’attention sur la paralysie des processus de décision européens, la réalité est tout autre. Loin de subir un déclin irréversible, l’UE conduit ses affaires comme à l’accoutumée et poursuit tranquillement l’élaboration de nouveaux projets et politiques.

Il suffit de lire les derniers gros titres de journaux. L’UE établit une stratégie pour l’énergie et l’environnement dans le but de mettre fin à la concurrence autodestructrice des fournisseurs de pétrole et de gaz en son sein même, tout se plaçant comme chef de file mondial de la lutte contre le changement climatique. Il est probable que sa politique étrangère et de sécurité ne lui permette pas pour l’heure de s’adresser au monde d’une seule et même voix. Cette politique commune prend pourtant forme et a déjà soigné certaines des blessures infligées par les désaccords sur la guerre en Irak. Tout aussi importante, l’intégration économique de l’Europe continue sa progression, avec un euro vigoureux et l’apparition d’un marché unique pour les services financiers.

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