Syrien: Lösung durch Lösungsverzicht?

MADRID – Syrien ist ein blutgetränktes Chaos. Vier Jahre Bürgerkrieg haben mehr als 200.000 Tote, eine Million Verwundete und 6,7 Millionen Binnenflüchtlinge hinterlassen. Weite 3,8 Millionen leben als Flüchtlinge im Ausland, und 13 Millionen (von einer Vorkriegsbevölkerung von 20 Millionen) brauchen humanitäre Hilfe. Zwei namhafte UN-Sondergesandte – Kofi Annan und Lakhdar Brahimi – haben angesichts der sich selbst verstärkenden Spirale der Gewalt im Lande ihren Rücktritt erklärt.

Doch trotz dieses düsteren Hintergrunds gibt es Grund zu vorsichtigem Optimismus. Die kurdischen Streitkräfte haben es vor kurzem nach monatelangen schweren Gefechten geschafft, den Islamischen Staat aus der Grenzstadt Kobane zu vertreiben. Zudem hat der neue UN-Gesandte Staffan de Mistura eine pragmatische und entschlossene Strategie eingeleitet – „Aleppo first“ –, die darauf abzielt, die Militäroperationen in der zerstörten Stadt zu stoppen und so den Zufluss von Hilfe zu erleichtern. Könnte dies einen Wendepunkt für Syrien markieren?

Niemand sah bei Ausbruch der Krise in Syrien vorher, als wie ernst, langwierig und komplex sie sich erweisen würde. Zunächst einmal unterschätzten die Beobachter das sich ständig verstärkende Gefühl der Hoffnungslosigkeit seitens der Bürger, das diese bewegt, Dschihadistengruppen bzw. das Assad-Regime zu unterstützen.

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