Un plan pragmatique pour la Syrie

MADRID – La Syrie est un champ de ruines baigné de sang. Quatre années de guerre civile ont causé plus de 200 000 morts, un million de blessés et 6,7 millions de personnes déplacées à l'intérieur du pays. 3,8 autres millions vivent comme réfugiés dans la région et au-delà et 13 millions (sur une population de 20 millions avant-guerre) ont besoin d'aide humanitaire. Deux illustres envoyés spéciaux des Nations Unies (Kofi Annan et Lakhdar Brahimi), ont renoncé face à la spirale perçue sans fin de la violence en Syrie.

Cependant, dans ce contexte peu réjouissant, pointe un motif d'optimisme prudent. Les forces kurdes ont récemment réussi, après des mois de violents combats, à expulser l'État islamique de la ville frontalière de Kobane. En outre, le nouvel envoyé de l'ONU, Staffan de Mistura, a lancé une stratégie « Alepo First »  pragmatique et déterminée, visant à geler les opérations militaires dans la ville en ruines et à faciliter l'entrée d’aide.  Serions-nous en présence d’un tournant pour la Syrie ?

Lorsque la crise a éclaté en Syrie, personne n'a su prédire à quel point elle serait grave, longue et complexe. Tout d'abord, les observateurs ont sous-estimé le sentiment de désespoir qui n'a eu de cesse de s'aggraver parmi les citoyens et qui les a poussé à soutenir les groupes djihadistes ou le régime d'Assad.

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