Luxury clothing is displayed in a window along Madison Avenue Spencer Platt/Getty Images

包容增长或其他

伦敦/华盛顿 – 在今年的瑞士达沃斯世界经济论坛会议上,与会者没有就当今全球增长的基础发出疑问,包括自由市场、好治理以及人力资本和基础设施投资等。但他们确实批评了增长果实分配的不公平。理应如此:如果不加强政策应对,打造一个更加包容的增长模式,

几乎每一项经济政策,都会对总收入及其分配造成影响。一些改革——如提高公平性和法律机关效率的改革——有利于增长和平等(机会平等)。产品和劳动力市场的去监管化的具体影响有利有弊,着也许是因为数据局限性和每项改革的具体环境不同所造成的。

相反,对于金融去监管化和国际资本流动自由化,则存在明确的效率-公平权衡:它们刺激了增长,但往往也会加剧不平等性。一些旨在经常项目交易(商品和服务贸易)自由化的措施也有类似影响的证据。

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