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大数据的隐患

坎布里奇——在博弈论中,无秩序主义的代价描述了在大规模体系中追求自身利益的个人如何倾向于降低整个系统的效率。这种现象普遍存在,几乎所有人都无法避免经常会以某种形式面对。

举例来讲,如果你是一位负责交通管理的城市规划师,解决所在城市的交通问题可以采用两种方式。一般人会选择一种自上而下的集中方法——即深入理解整套系统、找出瓶颈并通过修改加以消除——这种方法比让个体司机在路上做出选择更加有效,个体选择背后的假设是这些选择总体而言能够产生可以接受的结果。第一种方式降低了无秩序主义的代价,并充分利用了一切可用的信息。

今天的世界到处都是数据。仅2015年一年,人类就创造了与此前人类文明同样多的信息。每次我们发送邮件、拨打电话或完成交易,我们都会留下数字痕迹。我们正在迅速接近意大利作家卡尔维诺明确预言的“全球记忆状态”,完整复制我们物质宇宙的全部信息。

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