达尔文,最伟大的心理学家

科罗纳多,加利福尼亚—大部分人不会把达尔文看做是心理学家。事实上,他的工作开启了这一领域的革命。在达尔文之前,哲学猜测主宰着我们的心理学理解。但即使是伟大的哲学家——柏拉图、亚里士多德、霍布斯、休谟、洛克、康德、叔本华、尼采等——也只能描述当下的精神事件和行为;而不能解释它们的原因。

达尔文提出了深刻的洞见——进化对我们观念的影响与对我们身体的影响一样大。他认为,既然人类是从与现代黑猩猩和大猩猩共有的始祖进化而来的,那么将人类的本能、情感和行为与那些动物相比较应该能比主观猜测学到更多东西。达尔文说,“理解了狒狒,你就比洛克更接近形而上学。”

哲学不足以理解人类心理的根源,因为自我思考不能使我们知晓我们大部分对环境的反应的背后驱动力。相反,我们受天生倾向的控制,而天生倾向是通过自然和性选择的互惠影响力量发展出来的。

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