美国页岩的全球影响

华盛顿—本世纪以降,能源方面的最大创新是页岩气的开发以及相应的被称为“致密油”(tight oil)的资源。页岩能源之所以能位居榜首,不仅是因为其在美国蕴藏量丰富,也是因为其具有深远的全球影响——这一影响将在2014年继续显现。

美国页岩气和致密油已在改变全球能源影响,也削弱了欧洲对美国的竞争力和中国的整体制造竞争力。页岩气和致密油还改变着全球政治。事实上,页岩能源如何改变美国在中东的角色已成为华盛顿和中东本身的一个热门话题。

这场油气领域的“非常规革命”来得并不算快。液压致裂法1947年即已存在,将这种方法用于紧致的页岩最早可以追溯到20世纪80年代初的得克萨斯州。但直到20世纪90年代末和21世纪初,专门针对页岩的液压致裂法才与水平钻井一起臻于成熟。而其对美国能源供应产生值得注意的影响已经是2008年以后的事了。

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