الغاز الصخري الأميركي وتأثيره العالمي

واشنطن، العاصمة ــ كان أكبر إبداع في عالم الطاقة حتى الآن في هذا القرن تطوير تقنية استخراج الغاز الصخري والمورد المرتبط به والمعروف باسم "النفط المحكم". وتأتي الطاقة الصخرية في القمة ليس فقط بسبب وفرتها في الولايات المتحدة، بل وأيضاً بسبب تأثيرها العالمي العميق ــ كما ستثبت أحداث عام 2014 بشكل متواصل.

وقد بدأ الغاز الصخري والنفط المحكم الأميركي في تغيير أسواق الطاقة العالمية والحد من قدرة أوروبا التنافسية في مواجهة القدرة التنافسية الصناعية الإجمالية للولايات المتحدة والصين، كما تساهم الطاقة الصخرية في إحداث تحولات في السياسة العالمية. والواقع أن الكيفية التي قد تعمل بها الطاقة الصخرية على تغيير الدور الذي تلعبه أميركا في الشرق الأوسط أصبحت تشكل موضوعاً ساخناً في واشنطن، وفي الشرق الأوسط ذاته.

لم تأت هذه الثورة "غير التقليدية" في النفط والغاز بسرعة. فتقنية التكسير الهيدروليكي كانت مستخدمة منذ عام 1947، وقد بدأت الجهود الرامية إلى تكييف هذه التقنية مع الصخر الزيتي الكثيف في تكساس في أوائل الثمانينيات. ولكن لم يتم التوصل إلى إتقان هذا النمط المحدد من التكسير للصخر الزيتي، جنباً إلى جنب مع الحفر الأفقي، إلا في أواخر التسعينيات. وفي عام 2008 بدأ تأثير هذه التقنية على إمدادات الطاقة في الولايات المتحدة يصبح ملحوظا.

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