Sanciones y solidaridad

BRUSELAS – La Unión Europea finalmente ha llegado a un acuerdo sobre sus “sanciones de tercer nivel”  contra Rusia por sus acciones en Ucrania. Como es habitual en la UE, se ha tenido que atravesar por un proceso largo y difícil para llegar a este punto.

Un problema clave a lo largo de todo este camino ha sido que, a pesar de que las sanciones tienen un propósito común, los costos de su implementación son sufragados por los Estados miembros de manera individual. Además, los costos son muy concretos y visibles, debido a que lo que aparentemente se encuentra en juego son los puestos de trabajo en empresas que dependen de sus exportaciones a Rusia. Por lo tanto, no causó sorpresa que muchos de los Estados miembros se preocuparan más por el costo potencial que las sanciones llegarían a tener sobre sus economías en comparación con su preocupación por el objetivo general de política exterior de enviar señales a Rusia sobre que su desprecio por el derecho y las normas internacionales conlleva consecuencias.

Es por eso que un fondo común para proporcionar indemnizaciones por los costos económicos que conllevan las sanciones debe ser una parte integral de la nueva postura de política exterior adoptada por la UE frente a Rusia. La creación de un fondo de este tipo proporcionaría un poderoso símbolo de solidaridad dentro de la UE, y al mismo tiempo se constituiría en una oportunidad ideal para reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de los costos de las sanciones.

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