Cómo volver a echar a andar la economía de Ucrania

BRUSELAS – Hoy en día, en las capitales orientales y occidentales, se cierne una pregunta acaparadora de atención: “¿Quién perdió a Ucrania?” Desafortunadamente, en este momento, esa no es la pregunta más importante que se debiese formular.

La pregunta más pertinente es cómo estabilizar la situación en Ucrania. Teniendo en cuenta que, en la práctica, se puede hacer poco por sacar a Rusia de Crimea, el principal desafío, en este momento, es mantener al resto del país unido y volver a echar a andar a su economía, misma que al momento se encuentra en un estado de animación suspendida, debido a que su déficit fiscal y su déficit externo son insostenibles.

Se conocen muy bien cuáles son los temas clave para la reforma: se debe aumentar sustancialmente el precio del gas para reflejar su costo, se deben detener los subsidios a la producción nacional de carbón, y se debe hacer una revisión completa de la gestión de los oleoductos del país, por los cuales aún se perciben enormes aranceles por el transporte del gas ruso a Europa Occidental. Desde que, en los hechos y mediante negociaciones turbias, se entregaron dichas tuberías a empresas nominalmente privadas, los ingresos por aranceles de tránsito han desaparecido, junto con grandes cantidades de gas, mientras que se lleva a cabo muy poco mantenimiento.

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