Riavviare l’economia dell'Ucraina

BRUXELLES – In varie capitali dell'Est e dell'Ovest aleggia la fatidica domanda: "Chi ha perso l'Ucraina?" Purtroppo, però, non è questo l’interrogativo più urgente che oggi ci si dovrebbe porre.

Un problema ben più importante è come riuscire a stabilizzare la situazione del paese. Dal momento che poco si può fare, a livello pratico, per mandar via la Russia dalla Crimea, la principale sfida al momento è quella di mantenere il resto del paese unito e rimetterne in moto l’economia, il cui dinamismo è attualmente "congelato" per via dell'insostenibilità del suo deficit pubblico ed esterno.

Le aree che più necessitano d riforme sono ben note: bisogna incrementare in modo sostanziale il prezzo del gas in modo da rispecchiare i costi, dare un taglio agli incentivi per la produzione interna di carbone e rivedere la governance dei gasdotti del paese, che continuano a ricevere cospicue royalties per il trasporto di gas russo verso l'Europa occidentale. Da quando questi gasdotti sono stati affidati a società nominalmente private attraverso accordi poco trasparenti, i proventi derivati dalle tasse di transito sono spariti, così come enormi quantità di gas, mentre la manutenzione è rimasta scarsa.

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