大西洋两岸的增长差距

布鲁塞尔—2008年大爆发的全球金融危机对欧洲和美国的影响是非常相似的——至少在一开始是如此。在大西洋两岸,经济表现在2009年见底,并从2010年开始复苏。

但是,随着金融危机变异为欧元危机,美国和欧元区之间逐渐产生了一条经济鸿沟。在过去三年中(2011—2013年),美国经济大约增长了六个多百分点。即使考虑人口差异的增加(目前可以达到每年大约0.5个百分点的水平),这三年中美国人均经济增长仍能达到大约4.5个百分点以上

个中差异的主要原因是私人消费的不同,美国私人消费在增加,而欧元区在下降,特别是欧元区外围。公共消费的裁抑给美国需求造成的收缩(0.8个百分点)比欧盟(0.1个百分点)更严重。这可能有些令人吃惊,因为布鲁塞尔所施加的紧缩政策一直是人们热议的话题。

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