Le Lezioni dell’Europa per i Riformatori della Cina

BRUSSELS – La più importante decisione di politica economica del 2013 potrebbe benissimo essere stata adottata nel mese di novembre durante il Terzo Plenum del Comitato Centrale del Partito Comunista Cinese, che si è impegnato a dare al mercato un ruolo “decisivo” nella guida dell’economia cinese. Poiché la Cina è oggi il più grande esportatore mondiale dopo l’Unione Europea, e rappresenta circa la metà della crescita mondiale, le decisioni prese a Pechino potrebbero avere un impatto più importante per l’economia globale di quelle prese a Berlino, Bruxelles o Washington DC.

Ma, mentre l’abbraccio della Cina al mercato e l’apertura al mondo esterno hanno consentito di raggiungere un progresso economico sorprendente negli ultimi tre decenni, il paese potrebbe ormai aver raggiunto un livello di reddito in cui il problema non è “troppo poco mercato”. Al contrario, oggi alcuni dei principali problemi della Cina richiedono un ruolo più forte da parte del governo.

L’inquinamento dell’aria e dell’acqua, per esempio, può essere affrontato solo da un maggiore intervento statale, sia a livello centrale che locale. Le autorità hanno ora fatto della risoluzione del problema una reale priorità, e non vi è dubbio che la Cina ha le risorse per farlo –in quanto ha creato il settore produttivo più grande del mondo. La lotta contro lo smog e l’inquinamento delle acque si gioca sulla forza del Paese: la disponibilità di enormi risparmi nazionali per finanziare i necessari investimenti in attrezzature per l’abbattimento dell’inquinamento.

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