Come governano i ricchi

PRINCETON – Non è una novità che i ricchi abbiano più potere politico dei poveri, anche nei Paesi democratici dove tutti possono ottenere voti alle elezioni. Ma due scienziati politici, Martin Gilens della Princeton University e Benjamin Page della Northwestern University, hanno recentemente prodotto alcune scoperte forti per gli Stati Uniti che hanno implicazioni drammatiche per il funzionamento della democrazia – negli Usa e in altre aree.

La ricerca degli autori si fonda sull’opera precedente di Gilens, che ha faticosamente raccolto sondaggi d’opinione su quasi 2.000 domande di politica dal 1981 al 2002. La coppia ha poi preso in esame se il governo federale americano avesse adottato la politica in questione entro quattro anni dall’indagine, e ha tracciato la corrispondenza tra il risultato e le preferenze degli elettori in punti differenti della distribuzione dei redditi.

Se isolate, le preferenze dell’elettore “medio” – ossia, di un elettore a metà della distribuzione dei redditi – sembrano esercitare un’influenza fortemente positiva sulla risposta finale del governo. Una politica desiderata dall’elettore medio ha maggiore probabilità di essere emanata.

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