对狐狸学者的褒奖

发自普林斯顿——我们生活在一个复杂的世界,因此不得不努力将其简化。我们把周围的人归类为朋友或敌人,将他们的动机分成善意或恶意,并将拥有复杂根源的事件归咎于直接的原因。这些捷径帮助我们游弋于自身社会存在的复杂性之中,协助我们对自己和他人的行为后果进行预测,从而促进决策。

但由于这种“思维模型”是一种简化,它们必然会出错。它们可能有助于我们迎接日常的挑战,但它们遗漏了很多细节,当我们发现自己处于一个经验分类和已有解释都不太适合的环境中时就会适得其反。“文化冲击”这个词指的就是我们对他人行为的期望与实际是如此南辕北辙,以致感觉被这种体验所颠覆了。

然而,没有这些捷径,我们将会迷失或者瘫痪。我们既缺乏心智能力也没有足够的知识去破译社会存在中因果关系的完整网络。所以我们的日常行为和反应必须基于不完整的,偶尔误导性的思维模型。

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