O Fosso Crescente nas Economias em Desenvolvimento

PRINCETON – Quando investigadores no McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) trabalharam recentemente sobre os detalhes relativos ao atraso no desempenho económico do México, fizeram uma descoberta notável: um grande e inesperado fosso de produtividade entre empresas grandes e pequenas. De 1999 a 2009, a produtividade do trabalho subira uns respeitáveis 5,8% ao ano nas empresas grandes com 500 ou mais funcionários. Nas empresas pequenas com dez ou menos empregados, pelo contrário, a produtividade do trabalho baixara a uma taxa anual de 6,5%.

Além disso, a porção do emprego total nestas pequenas empresas, em níveis já inicialmente elevados, subira de 39% para 42% no mesmo período. Em face do grande fosso que separa o que os autores chamaram de “dois Méxicos,” não admira que o desempenho global da economia tenha sido tão pobre. Tão depressa quanto melhoravam as empresas grandes e modernas, através de investimentos em tecnologia e em competências, a economia era arrastada para baixo pelas suas improdutivas pequenas empresas.

Isto poderá parecer uma anomalia, mas é na verdade uma ocorrência cada vez mais comum. Olhemos para o mundo em desenvolvimento, e veremos uma fissura desconcertante a aparecer entre os sectores mais avançados e mais atrasados das economias.

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