Il Crescente Divario Nelle Economie In Via Di Sviluppo

PRINCETON – Recentemente, i ricercatori del McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) nell’approfondire dettagliatamente il ritardo della performance economica del Messico, hanno effettuato una scoperta notevole: un inatteso ampio divario nella crescita della produttività tra grandi e piccole imprese. Dal 1999 al 2009, nelle grandi imprese con 500 o più dipendenti, la produttività del lavoro era aumentata di un rispettabile 5,8% annuo. Nelle piccole imprese con dieci o meno dipendenti, invece, la crescita della produttività del lavoro era diminuita ad un tasso annuo del 6,5%.

Inoltre, in questo periodo, la quota di occupazione di queste piccole imprese, già di livello elevato, era aumentata dal 39% al 42 %. In considerazione del grande abisso che separava ciò che gli autori hanno definito i “due Messico”, non c’è da meravigliarsi che l’economia abbia avuto un andamento complessivamente così negativo. Essa infatti veniva trascinata verso il basso dalle sue piccole imprese improduttive tanto rapidamente quanto le grandi imprese moderne progredivano, attraverso investimenti in tecnologie e competenze.

Questo può sembrare un’anomalia, ma in realtà è un evento sempre più comune. Date uno sguardo a tutto il mondo in via di sviluppo, e vedrete una crepa sconcertante che si dilata tra i settori economici avanzati e quelli arretrati.

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