Le fossé inquiétant au sein des économies en développement

PRINCETON – En analysant récemment les mauvais résultats de l'économie mexicaine, les chercheurs du McKinsey GlobalInstitute ont noté une différence inattendue de croissance de productivité entre petites et grandes entreprises. Entre 1999 à 2009 la productivité de la main d'œuvre augmentait dans la proportion respectable de 5,8% par an dans les entreprises de plus de 500 employés, tandis qu'elle baissait au taux annuel de 6,5% dans les entreprises de moins de 11 employés.

Durant cette même période, la part des emplois dans ces petites entreprises, déjà importante, augmentait de 39% à 42%. Au vu du fossé qui sépare les "deux Mexiques", il n'est guère étonnant que l'économie du pays s'en sorte mal. Tandis que les grandes entreprises modernes prospéraient grâce à une technologie avancée et à une main d'œuvre qualifiée, l'économie stagnait sous le poids du manque de productivité des petites entreprises.

Il ne s'agit pas d'une anomalie, mais d'une situation de plus en plus fréquente. Dans le monde en développement, on constate un écart étonnant et qui va grandissant, entre les secteurs pilotes de l'économie et ceux qui sont à la traîne.

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