发展中经济体内部增长分化日增

普林斯顿—麦肯锡全球研究所(MGI)的研究者最近深入挖掘了墨西哥经济表现滞后的细节,并有了重大发现:大企业和小企业之间存在出人意料的巨大的生产率增长差距。从1999年到2009年,拥有500人或以让雇员的大企业劳动生产率每年都以引人注目的5.8%的速度增长。相反,在雇员人数十人或一年的企业,劳动生产率以每年6.5%的速度下降。

此外,这些小企业的就业比例此前便已相当高,在1999—2009年间进一步从39%增至42%。巨大的墨西哥湾将这个国家分成“两个墨西哥”(MGI研究者语),因此,毫不奇怪墨西哥整体经济表现如此差劲。尽管大型现代企业在通过投资于技术和技能而不断改善,但生产率低下的小企业拖累了经济。

这看起来像是例外,但事实上这一现象越来越普遍。放眼发展中世界,你可以看到,经济的领先部门和落后部门之间存在着令人困惑的差距。

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