Democracy Painted on a Rusted Boat Filippo Minelli/Flickr

La democrazia va rivista

PRINCETON – Sotto molti aspetti il mondo non è mai stato più democratico. Praticamente ogni governo sostiene almeno a parole la democrazia e i diritti umani. Sebbene le elezioni possano non essere libere e giuste, è rara la manipolazione elettorale di massa e i tempi in cui solo gli uomini, i bianchi o i ricchi potevano votare sono ormai lontani. I sondaggi globali di Freedom House dimostrano un aumento costante dagli anni 70 della percentuale di Paesi che sono “liberi” – un trend che lo scomparso scienziato politico di Harvard, Samuel Huntington, aveva battezzato come la “terza ondata” di democratizzazione.

La disseminazione delle norme democratiche dai Paesi avanzati dell’Occidente al resto del mondo è stata forse il beneficio più significativo della globalizzazione. Ma non va tutto liscio con la democrazia. I governi democratici di oggi registrano performance scarse, e il loro futuro resta estremamente dubbio.

Nei Paesi avanzati, il malcontento nei confronti del governo deriva dalla sua incapacità di fornire politiche economiche efficaci per la crescita e l’integrazione. Nelle democrazie più giovani del mondo in via di sviluppo, la mancata salvaguardia delle libertà civili e della libertà politica risulta un’altra fonte di malcontento.

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