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La malédiction de l'argent liquide

CAMBRIDGE – Le monde est inondé de billets de banque, car les grandes banques centrales produisent des centaines de milliards de dollars chaque année, essentiellement sous la forme de grosses coupures, notamment de 100 dollars. Ces dernières constituent presque 80% de la somme étonnante de 4 200 dollars en liquide détenue en moyenne par chaque citoyen américain. Au Japon, 90% de la monnaie existe sous la forme de billets de 10 000 yens (environ 100 dollars) et chaque Japonais détient en moyenne presque 7 000 dollars en liquide. Comme je le répète depuis 20 ans, ces liquidités stimulent la croissance de l'économie souterraine plutôt que celle de l'économie officielle.

Je ne suis pas partisan d'une société sans liquidités, qui ne serait ni réalisable ni souhaitable actuellement. Pourtant une société sans argent liquide serait plus équitable et plus sûre.

Avec la montée en puissance des cartes bancaires, des transferts électroniques et des payements par téléphone portable, on utilise de moins en moins d'argent liquide dans l'économie officielle, notamment pour les transactions d'une certaine importance. Les enquêtes réalisées par les banques centrales montrent que les gens ordinaires et les entreprises ne détiennent qu'une petite partie des grosses coupures.

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