Возведение плотин на реках Китая

Уже в течение длительного времени одной из наиболее острых китайских проблем является противостояние между экономическим развитием и зашитой окружающей среды. Последствия этой борьбы нигде не проявляются так отчетливо, как в предгорьях Гималаев в юго-западной провинции Юннань.

Три великих азиатских реки: Меконг, Салвин (или Ну) и Дзинша берут начало в Юннани. Все они начинаются на Великом Тибетском плато, текут параллельно по северо-западной части провинции и следуют далее в Юго-Восточную Азию. Они являются последними китайскими реками, сохранившимися в своем первозданном виде, однако могут быть принесены в жертву растущим потребностям страны в электроэнергии. Уже разработаны планы по возведению многочисленных дамб на извилистых участках этих рек в горах Юннани.

Мне представилась возможность увидеть одну из этих рек на участке, предложенном для строительства наиболее спорной системы плотин. Этот участок проходит через изумительное по красоте Ущелье Прыгающего Тигра, которое расположено севернее города Лицзян в северной Юннани. Приток могучей Янцзы, река Дзинша, спускаясь с Крыши Мира, образует каскад порогов и водопадов в 10-мильном ущелье на своем пути к Шанхаю и Восточному Китайскому морю. Если, или точнее, когда на реке будут построены плотины, энергоснабжение городов и предприятий в прибрежной зоне Китая, несомненно, улучшится.

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