Represar el capital

NUEVA YORK – Las regulaciones de las cuentas de capital han sido el centro de los debates financieros mundiales durante los dos últimos años. Las razones están claras: como el mundo ha experimentado una “recuperación con diferentes velocidades”, como dice el Fondo Monetario Internacional, los países avanzados con crecimiento lento están manteniendo unos tipos de interés muy bajos y otras políticas expansionistas, mientras que las economías en ascenso y con crecimiento rápido están relajando las políticas expansionistas que adoptaron durante la recesión. Esa asimetría ha impulsado el traslado de enormes corrientes de capitales de los primeros a los segundos, que probablemente continuará.

Las economías en ascenso temen que ese diluvio de capitales haga subir los tipos de cambio de sus divisas, además de alimentar déficits por cuenta corriente y burbujas de activos, lo que, como nos ha enseñado la experiencia pasada, es una receta segura para crisis futuras. El problema se agrava porque uno de los países que están aplicando políticas expansionistas es los Estados Unidos, que tiene el mayor sector financiero del mundo y emite la divisa mundial fundamental.

Así, pues, no es de extrañar, que varias economías en ascenso estén recurriendo a controles de capitales para intentar contener el diluvio, lo que, naturalmente, contradice la tesis que el FMI y otros han predicado en el pasado: la de que las economías en ascenso deben liberar sus cuentas de capitales como parte de un proceso más amplio de liberalización financiera.

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