¿Una gran teoría unificada para la economía?

NUEVA YORK – El cierre del gobierno de los EE.UU. ocurrido el mes pasado – que fue el resultado de un enfrentamiento partidista en las negociaciones presupuestarias del Congreso – se constituye en el epítome de la polarización que prevalece en los debates modernos sobre política económica.

En una esquina, el séquito de seguidores de John Maynard Keynes sostiene que la intervención del gobierno puede ayudar a que cualquier economía cree su propia manera de salir de una crisis, al estimular la demanda agregada y, como consecuencia de dicho estímulo, aumentar su tasa de empleo. El gobierno de un país, según lo que los keynesianos sostienen, tiene la capacidad – y la responsabilidad – de resolver muchos, si no todos, sus problemas económicos.

En la otra esquina, los seguidores de la Escuela Austriaca de pensamiento económico, especialmente los que siguen las ideas de Friedrich Hayek, afirman que un gobierno reducido y la libre empresa constituyen el único camino viable hacia la libertad y la prosperidad. El mercado es el mejor árbitro sobre la forma de asignar recursos escasos, y por lo tanto, el mercado debe servir como el principal motor de la economía.

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