نظرية اقتصادية موحدة كبرى

نيويورك ــ كان تعطل حكومة الولايات المتحدة جزئياً في الشهر الماضي ــ نتيجة للمواجهة الحزبية في مفاوضات الميزانية في الكونجرس ــ تجسيداً للاستقطاب السائد في المناقشات التي تتناول السياسات الاقتصادية الحديثة.

فمن ناحية، يزعم أتباع جون ماينارد كينز أن تدخل الحكومة من الممكن أن يساعد أي اقتصاد لتحقيق النمو والخروج من الأزمة من خلال تحفيز الطلب الكلي، وبالتالي زيادة معدلات تشغيل العمالة. ويضيف أتباع كينز أن حكومة أي دولة تملك القدرة على حل العديد من المشاكل الاقتصادية إن لم يكن كلها ــ وهي مسؤولة عن توظيف هذه القدرة.

ومن ناحية أخرى، يؤكد أتباع المدرسة النمساوية في الفكر الاقتصادي، وخاصة أفكار فريدريك هايك، أن الحكومة المحدودة الحجم والمشاريع الحرة تشكل المسار الوحيد الصحيح إلى الحرية والازدهار، وأن السوق هي الحكم الأفضل على كيفية تخصيص الموارد الشحيحة، وبالتالي فلابد أن تعمل باعتبارها المحرك الرئيسي لأي اقتصاد.

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