Del desempleo a la creación de empresas

CHICAGO – Es de sobra sabido que el empleo en el sector manufacturero en los Estados Unidos ha disminuido en gran medida por el aumento de la manufactura en países en desarrollo como México y China, pero pocos reconocen descensos similares en otros sectores, pese a las transcendentales consecuencias económicas, sociales y políticas de semejantes tendencias.

Desde 1972, el número de telefonistas se ha reducido en un 82 por ciento, el de mecanógrafos en un 80 por ciento, el de secretarias en un 60 por ciento y el de contables en un 50 por ciento. Además, durante la “gran recesión”, los puestos de trabajos oficinescos y administrativos se redujeron en un ocho por ciento, los empleos en producción y artesanía disminuyeron un 17 por ciento y el número de maquinistas, especialistas en acabados y jornaleros se redujo en un 15 por ciento. El empleo en todas las demás profesiones permaneció inalterable o aumentó.

La manufactura y el apoyo administrativo daban empleo a millones de personas, pero los avances tecnológicos han permitido automatizar muchos de esos puestos de trabajo de clase media o se los ha trasladado al extranjero, proceso que se espera que se acelere con el aumento de la automatización de las actividades basadas en los conocimientos y los avances en la robótica.

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