Do desemprego ao empreendedorismo

CHICAGO – É sabido que o emprego industrial diminuiu significativamente nos Estados Unidos devido ao aumento da produção nos países em desenvolvimento, como o México e a China. No entanto, poucos reconhecem quedas semelhantes em outros sectores, apesar das implicações extensivas a nível económico, social e político de tais tendências.

Desde 1972, o número de telefonistas registou uma descida de 82%, as dactilógrafas foram reduzidas em 80%, as secretárias em 60% e os contabilistas em 50%. Além disso, durante a Grande Recessão, os postos de trabalho em escritório e funções administrativas diminuíram 8%, as funções na produção e actividades artesanais sofreram uma queda de 17% e o número de vagas para operadores de máquinas, fabricantes e operários desceu 15%. Os níveis de emprego relativos a todas as outras actividades laborais mantiveram-se inalterados ou aumentaram.

As actividades laborais relacionadas com a indústria transformadora e apoio administrativo empregavam milhões de pessoas. Todavia, os avanços tecnológicos levaram a que grande parte desses empregos da classe média fossem automatizados ou deslocados para países terceiros - prevendo-se a aceleração deste processo, por via da crescente automatização de actividades que assentam no conhecimento e dos avanços no domínio da robótica.

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