Aus der Arbeitslosigkeit zum Unternehmer

CHICAGO – Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass die Beschäftigung im Produktionsbereich in den Vereinigten Staaten deutlich zurückgegangen ist. Ursache ist der Aufstieg des Produktionssektors in Schwellenländern wie Mexiko oder China. Weniger wahrgenommen allerdings werden ähnliche Rückgänge in anderen Bereichen, obwohl solche Trends weit reichende wirtschaftliche, soziale und politische Auswirkungen haben.

Seit 1972 ist die Anzahl der Telefonistinnen um 82% zurückgegangen, die Anzahl der Schreibkräfte um 80%, der Sekretärinnen um 60% und der Buchhalter um 50%. Außerdem nahmen während der großen Rezession die Anzahl der Büro- und Verwaltungsjobs um 8% ab, Arbeitsplätze in Produktion und Handwerk um 17%, und solche für Maschinenbediener, Monteure und Arbeiter um 15%. In allen anderen Berufen blieb die Beschäftigungsrate entweder gleich oder nahm zu.

Im Produktions- und Verwaltungsbereich waren einst Millionen von Menschen beschäftigt. Aber viele dieser Mittelklassejobs wurden entweder durch technologischen Fortschritt automatisiert oder ins Ausland verlagert – ein Prozess, der sich im Zuge wachsender Automatisierung wissensbasierter Aktivitäten und Fortschritten in der Robotik noch beschleunigen dürfte.

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