De chômeur à entrepreneur

CHICAGO – Chacun sait que le déclin prononcé de l’emploi manufacturier aux États-Unis découle de la montée des secteurs manufacturiers des pays en développement comme le Mexique et la Chine. Mais peu de gens sont conscients de chutes analogues dans d’autres secteurs, malgré le fait que ces tendances sont lourdes de conséquences sur les plans économique, social et politique.

Depuis 1972, les standardistes ont vu leurs rangs péricliter de 82 %, les dactylos de 80 %, les secrétaires de 60 % et les commis-comptables de 50 %. Qui plus est, la dernière grande récession a éclairci les rangs effectifs administratifs et de bureau de 8 %, les métiers liés à la production et à l’usinage de 17 % et les postes d’opérateurs de machinerie, de monteurs et de manœuvres de 15 %. Les autres métiers n’ont pas bougé ou ont vu leurs rangs grossir.

Les emplois manufacturiers et administratifs se comptaient autrefois en millions. Mais les avancements techniques ont permis l’automatisation ou la délocalisation d’un grand nombre de ces emplois traditionnellement occupés par la classe moyenne – un processus qui devrait s’accélérer davantage en raison de l’automatisation croissante des métiers spécialisés et des progrès de la robotique.

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