Van werkloosheid naar ondernemerschap

CHICAGO – Het is welbekend dat de werkgelegenheid in de fabricage van goederen in de Verenigde Staten significant is afgenomen door de groei van de productie in opkomende landen als Mexico en China. Maar slechts enkelen herkennen hetzelfde soort dalingen in andere sectoren, ondanks de verreikende economische, sociale en politieke implicaties van deze trends.

Sinds 1972 is het aantal telefoonoperators met 82% gedaald, het aantal typisten met 80%, secretaresses met 60% en boekhouders met 50%. Bovendien verminderde het aantal kantoor- en administratieve banen tijdens de recessie na 2008 met 8%, de productie- en handwerkbanen met 17% en de plekken voor machine-operators, constructeurs en arbeiders met 15%. De werkgelegenheid in alle andere beroepen bleef hetzelfde of groeide.

De beroepen in de fabricage en administratieve ondersteuning voorzagen eerst miljoenen mensen van werk. Maar technologische vooruitgang heeft veel van deze middenklasse banen geautomatiseerd of naar het buitenland doen verplaatsen (een proces dat verwacht wordt nog te versnellen met de groeiende automatisering van op kennis gebaseerde activiteiten en vooruitgang in robots).

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now