从失业到企业家精神

芝加哥—众所周知,美国的制造业就业大幅萧条,原因在于墨西哥和中国等发展中国家制造业的崛起。但很少有人注意到其他部门也经历了类似的衰落,即使这些趋势产生了深远的经济、社会和政治影响。

自1972年以来,电话操作员数量下降了82%,打字员减少了80%,文秘减少了60%,会计员减少了50%。此外,在大衰退时期,办公室和行政职位减少了8%,生产和工艺职位减少了17%,机械操作员、装配员和工人数量减少了15%。其他岗位的就业情况或保持不变,或有所增长。

通常,制造业岗位和行政支持岗位数量高达数百万。但技术进步让许多中产阶级岗位可以自动化或离岸化——随着基于知识的活动的自动化和机器人的进步,预计这一趋势还将加速。

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