says that Russia's use of cyber technology for information warfare is disruptive, not attractive. Kirill Kudryavtsev/Getty Images

Guerre de l’information contre puissance douce

CAMBRIDGE – L’ingérence de la Russie dans l’élection présidentielle américaine, de même que les suspicions de piratage des serveurs informatiques de la campagne du président français Emmanuel Macron, ne devraient surprendre personne compte tenu de la (mé)compréhension que le président Poutine se fait de la puissance douce. Comme l’avait affirmé Poutine avant sa réélection en 2012 dans un journal moscovite, « la puissance douce est un ensemble d’outils et de méthodes permettant d’atteindre des objectifs de politique étrangère sans recourir à la force, via l’information et d’autres moyens d’influence ».

Dans l’esprit du Kremlin, les révolutions de couleur observées dans les pays voisins de la Russie et lors du Printemps arabe sont autant d’exemples de l’utilisation de la puissance douce par les États-Unis, en tant que nouvelle forme de guerre hybride. La notion de puissance douce a été intégrée Concept de politique étrangère 2013 de la Russie. De même, en 2016, le chef de l’État-major général russe Valery Gerasimov affirmait que répondre à de telles menaces étrangères « par l’usage de troupes conventionnelles est impossible ; ces menaces ne peuvent être contrées que par des méthodes hybrides similaires ».

Qu’est-ce que la puissance douce ? Certains pensent qu’il s’agit de toute action autre que l’usage de la force militaire, ce qui n’est pas exact. La puissance douce est la capacité à obtenir ce que vous souhaitez au moyen de l’attraction et de la persuasion, plutôt que par la menace d’une coercition ou la proposition d’un avantage financier.

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