says that Russia's use of cyber technology for information warfare is disruptive, not attractive. Kirill Kudryavtsev/Getty Images

信息战和软实力

坎布里奇——俄罗斯干预2016年美国总统大选,并被怀疑入侵法国总统伊曼纽尔·马克龙的竞选服务器不会令任何人感到吃惊,因为弗拉基米尔·普京总统理解(或者说误解)了软实力。在2012年再度当选之前,普京告诉莫斯科的一家报纸“软实力是通过信息和其他影响力手段不必借助武力也能实现外交政策目标的一系列复杂的方法和工具。”

在克里姆林宫看来,邻国的颜色革命和阿拉伯之春起义是美国将软实力应用于新型混合战争的实例。软实力的概念被纳入俄“2013年外交政策概念”,而在2016年3月,俄罗斯总参谋长瓦列里·格拉西莫夫指出用“常规部队来响应这样的外国威胁是不可能的;我们只能用同样的混合方法来进行抵御。”

软实力是什么?有人认为是军事力量以外的任何行动,但这种认识并不准确。软实力不是通过强制或收买,而是通过吸引和说服来达到既定目的的能力。

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