Ciberguerra y ciberpaz

CAMBRIDGE – Hace dos años, un fragmento de código informático defectuoso infectó el programa nuclear de Irán y destruyó muchas de las centrífugas utilizadas para enriquecer uranio. Algunos observadores declararon este aparente sabotaje como el presagio de una nueva forma de guerra, y el secretario de Defensa de Estados Unidos, Leon Panetta, advirtió a los norteamericanos sobre el peligro de un "Pearl Harbor cibernético" contra Estados Unidos. Ahora bien, ¿qué sabemos realmente sobre un ciberconflicto?

El dominio cibernético de las computadoras y las actividades electrónicas relacionadas es un entorno complejo diseñado por el hombre, y los adversarios humanos son resueltos e inteligentes. Las montañas y los océanos son difíciles de mover, pero se pueden encender y apagar porciones del ciberespacio con sólo accionar un interruptor. Es mucho más económico y más rápido desplazar electrones por el mundo que mover barcos grandes en largas distancias.

Los costos de desarrollar estas embarcaciones -fuerzas de operaciones de múltiples portadores y flotas submarinas- crean enormes barreras de entrada, lo que permite el dominio naval de Estados Unidos. Pero las barreras para ingresar en el dominio cibernético son tan bajas que actores no estatales y pequeños estados pueden desempeñar un papel importante a un costo bajo.

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