Cyber guerre et paix

CAMBRIDGE – Il& a deux ans, un fragment de code informatique dévastateur infectait le programme nucléaire iranien et détruisait plusieurs centrifugeuses destinées à enrichir de l’uranium. Certains observateurs faisaient état de ce sabotage manifeste comme l’un des signes avant-coureur d’une nouvelle forme de guerre, et le secrétaire de la Défense américain Leon Panetta avertissait ses concitoyens du danger d’un «& cyber Pearl Harbor& » à l’encontre des États-Unis. Mais que savons-nous réellement de la guerre cybernétique& ?

Le monde virtuel de l’informatique et des activités électroniques connexes est un environnement complexe, créé par l’homme, et les adversaires de l’être humain sont déterminés et intelligents. Pas facile de déplacer les montagnes et les océans, tandis qu’une portion du cyberespace peut être activée et désactivée sur pression d’un bouton. Il est bien moins onéreux et bien plus rapide de déplacer des électrons autour du globe que de naviguer un cargo sur de longues distances.& &

Les coûts de développement de navires tels que gros porteurs et flotte sous-marine créent des barrières à l’entrée considérables qui permettent une domination américaine du secteur naval. En revanche, les barrières à l’entrée dans le domaine cybernétique sont si frêles que les acteurs non-étatiques et les petits États peuvent jouer un rôle significatif pour un coût réduit. &

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