网络战争与和平

剑桥——两年前,一条有缺陷的计算机代码感染了伊朗核计划,并摧毁了许多用于铀浓缩的离心机。有些观察家称这种明显的蓄意破坏预示着一种新的战争形式,美国国防部长莱昂·帕内塔警告美国人可能会受到“网络珍珠港”袭击。但我们对网络冲突究竟有多少认识?

电脑及相关电子活动的网络域名构成了纯粹人造的复杂环境,上述环境中的人类对手高度智能化而且有针对性。山脉和海洋很难移动,但网络空间却可以借助开关关上和打开。电子的全球移动远比大型船舶的远距离移动更为廉价和快速。

多航母特遣部队和潜艇舰队的舰船研发成本创造出巨大的进入壁垒,确保了美国的海上优势。但网络领域的进入壁垒极其低廉,即使非国家参与者和小国也能以低廉的成本发挥重要的作用。

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