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nye188_Sergei KonkovTASS via Getty Images_russia hacker Sergei Konkov/Tass via Getty Images

美俄之间的网络路径规则

发自剑桥——虽然俄罗斯的网络行动扰乱了2016年总统大选,但美国却并未对此作出强烈反应。当时美国总统奥巴马警告说俄罗斯总统普京将自食其果,然而有效的应对工作却被特朗普胜选这一国内政治事件捆住了手脚。但如今这种情况可能会有所改变。

最近有匿名美国官员确认曾利用进攻性网络行动阻止了俄方谣言制造者扰乱2018年国会选举。虽然这种进攻性网络行动很少被讨论,但却点出了防止2020年美国总统大选遭到干扰的一些手段。须知仅仅去攻击谣言制造者可是不够的。

威慑性报复威胁仍然一种至关重要但却并未充分利用的反网络攻击策略。尽管据报有中国俄罗斯人渗透进了美国电网,但电力系统并未受到攻击。五角大楼的原则是官员可以选择任何武器来对破坏做出反应,而威慑似乎可以在这个层面上发挥作用。

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  1. op_anheier8_MichaelOrsoGettyImages_Atlasstatueinnewyork Michael Orso/Getty Images

    Philanthropy vs. Democracy

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    For philanthropic institutions, the fundamental question of accountability first raised by the emergence of liberal democracy will not go away. To what extent should modern societies permit independent private agendas in the public realm and allow their advocates to pursue objectives that are not shared by governments and popular majorities?

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