Уроки фискального обрыва

КЕМБРИДЖ – Одной из множества вещей, которые я узнал от Милтона Фридмана, является то, что реальной ценой правительства являются его расходы, а не налоги. Иначе говоря, расходы финансируются либо за счет текущих налогов, либо за счет займов, которые составят будущие налоги, и имеют практически такое же влияние на экономические показатели, как и текущие налоги.

Мы можем применить данные суждения к неустойчивому финансовому дефициту США. Как нам уже известно, закрытие данного дефицита требует меньших расходов и больших налогов.

Обычно считается, что разумный, взвешенный подход требует некоторого вовлечения обеих частей. Но, как сказал бы Фридман, два различных метода следует считать полярными противоположностями. Меньшие расходы подразумевают меньший контроль. Увеличение налогов подразумевает больший контроль. Таким образом, люди, которые выступают за меньший контроль (например, республиканцы), хотят полностью закрыть дефицит за счет сокращения расходов, в то время как те, кто выступает за больший контроль (например, президент США Барак Обама и большинство демократов), хотят полностью закрыть дефицит за счет повышения налогов.

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