US Capital building full frame/Flickr

La parodia sobre la manipulación de divisas

NEW HAVEN – A medida que el Congreso de Estados Unidos forcejea con el siempre polémico Acuerdo de Asociación Transpacífico (TPP) – la legislación emblemática sobre comercio exterior del presidente Barack Obama – se avecina de manera inminente un escollo de importancia. El 22 de mayo, el Senado lo evitó, derrotando por un estrecho margen – con una votación de 51 a 48 – una enmienda propuesta sobre la “manipulación del mercado de divisas”  al proyecto de ley que brinda a Obama la autoridad para negociar el TPP mediante un procedimiento de “vía rápida”. Sin embargo, este tema podría resucitar ya que el debate se desplaza a la Cámara de Representantes, donde existe un fuerte apoyo a las “reglas exigibles sobre divisas”.

Durante al menos una década, el Congreso se centró en la manipulación del mercado de divisas – una acusación dirigida a los países que supuestamente intervienen en el mercado de divisas con el fin de suprimir el valor de sus monedas, subvencionando consiguientemente las exportaciones. En 2005, los senadores Charles Schumer, un demócrata liberal de Nueva York, y Lindsey Graham, un republicano conservador de Carolina del Sur, formaron una alianza muy poco probable con el fin de defender a los trabajadores de la clase media de Estados Unidos, quienes estaban siendo abrumados por prácticas competitivas supuestamente injustas. Al detener la manipulación del mercado de divisas, su argumentación asevera, se estrecharía la amplia brecha del déficit de comercio exterior de Estados Unidos – lo que a su vez proporcionaría beneficios duraderos y significativos a los trabajadores que pasan penurias económicas.

Hace una década, la propuesta original Schumer-Graham fue una iniciativa muy poco disimulada en contra de China. La ira que motivó la propuesta continúa vigente hoy en día, ya que China dio cuenta del 47% del aún demasiado amplio déficit estadounidense en su la balanza comercial de mercancías en el año 2014. No importa que el renminbi chino hubiese aumentado su valor en un 33% frente al dólar desde mediados de 1995, llegando a un nivel que el Fondo Monetario Internacional ya no considera como infravalorado, ni tampoco que el superávit de cuenta corriente de China se hubiese reducido desde el 10% del PIB en 2007 a un estimado del 2% en 2014. China continúa en la mirilla de los políticos estadounidenses que están convencidos de que los trabajadores estadounidenses son víctimas de sus prácticas comerciales injustas.

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