Raul Castro solo Costa Rica presidency/ZumaPress

公共政策的叙事根基

布宜诺斯艾利斯—在最近的巴拿马美洲峰会(Summit of the Americas)上,古巴总统劳尔·卡斯特罗打破了常规(agreed protocol)。他的讲话不是八分钟,而是比这个时间长了五倍,用轻浮松散的事实依据论述了古巴政治史。这是为什么?

作为拥有正式与会资格的经济学专家,我所接受的训练让我用英国哲学家边沁(Jeremy Bentham)的观点看待世界。边沁认为,公共政策的目的是为最广大人民创造最大幸福。政策如果不受一些功利主义原则变量的约束,那么(如约翰·罗尔斯(John Rawls)或阿玛蒂亚·森(Amartya Sen)等人所言)它们就必然是无效或不公正的。

但心理学和神经科学的新进展表明,要理解社会和政治行为,或者,要改进政策,我们更应该读一读黑格尔而不是边沁。这听起来也许有些奇怪,因为黑格尔是个理想主义者,他永远不会想到神经科学——独立于Geist(通常被译为“思想”或“精神”)的物质实在——会与他的研究扯上关系。

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