Obama meets with Castro in Cuba The Asahi Shimbun | getty images

Amerika se vrací na Kubu

PEKING – Návštěva Baracka Obamy na Kubě je první návštěvou amerického prezidenta v této zemi od roku 1928, kdy se na Kubu vypravil Calvin Coolidge. V Obamových stopách se později vydají američtí investoři, kubánští vystěhovalci, turisté, akademici a podfukáři. Normalizace bilaterálních vztahů bude pro Kubu znamenat příležitosti i nástrahy, zatímco pro Spojené státy půjde o obrovskou zkoušku zralosti.

Kubánská revoluce, v jejímž čele stál před 57 lety Fidel Castro, byla hlubokou ranou pro americkou psychiku. Od založení USA totiž jejich nejvyšší činitelé pěstovali teorii o americké výjimečnosti. Americký model je tak přesvědčivý, tvrdili jeho představitelé, že každá slušná země musí zákonitě následovat americké vedení. A pokud jsou zahraniční vlády natolik bláhové, že americkou cestu odmítají, pak musí počítat s odplatou za poškozování zájmů USA (které se překrývají s univerzálními zájmy) a potažmo za ohrožování americké bezpečnosti.

Havana leží pouhých 150 kilometrů od souostroví Florida Keys, takže se Američané vměšují do kubánských záležitostí prakticky ustavičně. Thomas Jefferson vyjádřil v roce 1820 názor, že USA „by měly při první příležitosti Kubu obsadit“. To se skutečně stalo v roce 1898, kdy USA zasáhly do kubánského povstání proti Španělsku s cílem zajistit si faktickou hospodářskou a politickou hegemonii nad ostrovem.

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