L'entreprise familiale, gage de pérennité

Dans la guerre des valeurs entre l'Amérique et une grande partie de la planète, la gouvernance d'entreprise tient une place importante. Des points de vue différents sur la manière de mettre en œuvre le capitalisme traduisent et parfois alimentent le ressentiment à l'égard des USA. Dans les années 1990, il semblait que tout le monde voulait faire des affaires à la manière américaine, avec des marchés financiers actifs et des patrons agissant au mieux de l'intérêt des actionnaires. Cette américanisation a souvent été appelée "mondialisation".

Vint alors le choc en retour, dû en grande partie à la débâcle d'Enron et aux autres scandales de ce type. On s'est alors détourné de la gouvernance d'entreprise à l'américaine ; les Européens et les Asiatiques se sont réclamés avec encore plus d'insistance d'un modèle de capitalisme fondé sur des objectifs et une vision à long terme. La défense prioritaire de l'intérêt des actionnaires était rejetée comme une mode passagère et une forme de supercherie.

En Europe continentale et dans certains pays d'Asie, l'entreprise repose depuis toujours sur des institutions inscrites dans la durée, notamment la famille. La famille étendue joue encore un rôle central, et ceci même dans le secteur des grandes entreprises. Selon une enquête récente, 17 des 100 plus grandes entreprises allemandes appartiennent à des clans familiaux, elles sont 26 en France et 43 en Italie.

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