Créativité, corporatisme et psychologie des foules

NEW HAVEN – Comme nous l’avons depuis longtemps appris des travaux d’économistes tels que Robert M. Solow du MIT, la croissance économique est en grande partie poussée par l’apprentissage et l’innovation, et pas seulement par l’épargne et l’accumulation de capital. En fin de compte, le progrès économique dépend de la créativité. C’est la raison pour laquelle la crainte d’une « stagnation séculaire » au sein des économies développées en conduit beaucoup à s’interroger sur la manière dont il serait possible de stimuler cette créativité.

L’un des principaux arguments récents met avant tout l’accent sur la nécessité d’une relance économique keynésienne – impliquant notamment de créer du déficit budgétaire. Après tout, les individus ne seraient-ils pas plus créatifs lorsqu’ils sont actifs que lorsqu’ils sont sans emploi.

D’autres ne voient pas le lien entre relance et renouveau du dynamisme économique. Comme l’a récemment fait valoir la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel, l’Europe a besoin « de courage politique et de créativité, plutôt que de milliards d’euros. »

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