Lähmende Koalitionen

In Großbritannien brachte die Wiederwahl Tony Blairs im letzten Jahr einen Erdrutschsieg für New Labor und damit der Partei eine solide Mehrheit im britischen Unterhaus. Gerhard Schröder schaffte es gerade noch mithilfe seines ungeliebten grünen Koalitionspartners und einiger, dem deutschen Wahlsystem zu verdankender ,,Überhangmandate" eine Mehrheit im Deutschen Bundestag zu retten.

Welche Feststellung ist nun richtig und welche falsch? Merkwürdigerweise sind beide Feststellungen richtig und falsch. Erstaunlich ist, dass Premierminister Blairs Labor Party bei den Wahlen 2001 um 2 % weniger Stimmen bekam als 1997, aber schließlich etwas mehr als 40 % aller abgegebenen Stimmen auf sich vereinigen konnte. Schröders Sozialdemokraten verloren ebenfalls 2 % im Vergleich zu den Wahlen 1998 erhielten aber insgesamt etwas weniger als 40 % Stimmenanteil. Zudem kommt, dass Schröder mit 38,5 % der Stimmen bei einer Wahlbeteiligung von 80 %, ein Drittel der Wählerstimmen auf sich vereinigen konnte, während Blair nur etwa ein Viertel bekam (40 % bei einer Wahlbeteiligung von 60 %).

Der Unterschied zwischen den beiden Mitte-Links-Regierungschefs liegt nicht im Ausmaß ihres Wahlerfolges, sondern in den Wahlsystemen, in denen sie errungen wurden. Das britische ,,first-past-the-post"-Wahlsystem (relatives Mehrheitswahlsystem in Einpersonenwahlkreisen) stattete Blair mit einer soliden Mehrheit aus, während Schröder und seine Partner von den Grünen durch das deutsche System des modifizierten Verhältniswahlrechts eine knappe (und möglicherweise brüchige) Mehrheit errangen.

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