论对艾滋病毒的刑事犯罪化

约翰内斯堡-“如果法律是这样认定的”,查尔斯·狄更斯的小说《雾都孤儿》中的邦博先生这样说道“ 那么法律就是个屁。 ”有一种刑事法律,它使艾滋病毒携带者宁愿不知道自己已经被感染并能传播给包括亲人在内的其他人,这样的法律似乎特别适合邦博先生的谴责。

然而,悲剧性的是,世界上许多地方的立法者们在阻止艾滋病毒和艾滋病蔓延的过程中犯了错误,他们通过了一种能增加人们对艾滋病的无知并惩罚艾滋病的受害者的刑事法,而且还会提高该病毒感染的机率。一些中部及西部的非洲国家正在颁布仓促起草的基于非洲示范法之上的政策,那么任何感染了这种病毒的人,如果将病毒传染给别人或使另一人受到感染的威胁,这就成了一种刑事犯罪行为。在一些管辖区,检察机关可以对艾滋病毒抗体呈阳性的孕妇提出起诉,因为她们让未出生的孩子受到病菌感染的危险。

可以肯定,确实是有罕见的富有戏剧性的案例,如一个艾滋病毒感染者怀着加害别人的意图去感染另一个人。事实上非洲一些地区的男性艾滋病毒感染者或艾滋病患者甚至去强奸少女,因为他们相信与处女发生性行为可以治愈艾滋病。一些妇女权利倡导者支持将传播艾滋病毒刑事化的法律,认为这些法律将严惩向性伴侣包括他们的妻子和女朋友隐瞒自己感染了艾滋病毒的男子。但是,现有的刑事法足以让已有准备的司法系统对打算损害他人者进行恰当的制裁。

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