Corrupción y liberalización

La corrupción es uno de los problemas endémicos de Africa. En efecto, es un asunto clave en las próximas elecciones presidenciales en Nigeria, dada la lucha ambiciosa pero fallida del presidente Obasanjo para frenarla. Pero se suponía que los vientos de la globalización arrastrarían las telarañas del soborno y la ineficiencia. Devesh Kapur, experto en ciencias políticas de Harvard, trata de explicar por qué eso no está sucediendo.

Al eliminar la participación directa del Estado en las actividades económicas y al limitar sus poderes discrecionales, tanto la eficiencia económica como la administrativa mejorarán. A los países en desarrollo se les ha repetido esa cantaleta durante años. Al abrir las economías a la competencia y la inversión internacionales, los gobiernos supuestamente se harán disciplinados, ya que el capital financiero internacional los estará vigilando.

Sin duda reducir el tamaño del gobierno y hacerlo menos intervencionista tiene sus ventajas. Uganda es un ejemplo de que eso puede traer beneficios a corto plazo. Sin embargo, es claro que la corrupción no ha disminuído de la manera que los promotores de la liberalización dijeron que lo haría, y la administración tampoco ha mejorado notablemente en la mayoría de los países. ¿Por qué?

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