Convertir Damas

Parvenir à une paix israélo-arabe exige une approche globale, parce les enjeux sont inextricablement liés. Des points de litige fondamentaux comme Jérusalem et les réfugiés palestiniens sont non seulement insolubles sans un consensus du monde arabe, mais tout pays laissé à l’écart du processus de paix persistera à jouer un rôle contestataire visant à déstabiliser la région.

Il faut bien admettre qu’Israël n’a jamais aimé l’idée de négocier la paix avec tous ses ennemis simultanément, ne serait-ce qu’en raison du prix politique exorbitant à payer pour des concessions inévitables. La stratégie de l’État hébreu oscille donc entre deux pôles : la gauche israélienne tend à donner la priorité à la question palestinienne, tandis que la droite préfère la négociation d’un accord avec les principales puissances arabes.

Les pourparlers de paix israélo-palestiniens actuels et le veto imposé par les Etats-Unis à toute négociation avec la Syrie indiquent qu’Israël est revenu à la première approche. Mais ses chances de réussite sont désespérément ténues. Tandis que le gouvernement américain refuse toujours de jouer un rôle de médiateur analogue à celui de l’administration Clinton, les négociateurs semblent incapables de donner suite ne serait-ce qu’aux conditions préalables minimales de chaque partie pour un accord.

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