Die Kontrolle des chinesischen Fernsehens

Im von den Reportern ohne Grenzen herausgegebenen Bericht zur Lage der Pressefreiheit weltweit 2003 rangiert China auf Platz 161 von 166 Nationen, irgendwo zwischen Iran und Nordkorea. Die chinesische Fernsehkost besteht jedoch, immerhin, nicht mehr aus prüden Melodramen und unbeholfenen Indoktrinationsprogrammen der maoistischen Vergangenheit. Sieht man heutzutage zufällig die heutzutage unbekümmert dargebotenen Programme mit Sex, Krimi, Drogen und Gewalt und die banalen Quizsendungen im chinesischen Fernsehen, könnte man den Eindruck gewinnen, dass die meisten Beschränkungen bei den übertragenen Sendungen aufgehoben wurden.

Konzentriert man sich auf ausdrücklich politische Sendungen, verschwindet dieser Eindruck. Standpunkte, die auch nur im mindesten von der Parteidoktrin abweichen, sucht man im chinesischen Fernsehen immer noch vergeblich. Trotz der oberflächlichen Vielseitigkeit der Programme, hat sich die starre Kontrolle des politischen Diskurses seit den Fünfzigerjahren kaum verändert.

Der bloße Umfang der Programme im chinesischen Fernsehen erschwert es allerdings diese Kontrolle zu wahren. China Central Television (CCTV) allein sendet auf 12 Kanälen (viele davon 24 Stunden täglich) und beschäftigt 300 Mitarbeiter. CCTV obliegt der Kontrolle der Propagandaabteilung und des Ministeriums für Radio, Film und Fernsehen. Unzählige provinzweite und städtische Fernsehsender haben ebenfalls die Auflage einige Programme des CCTV auszustrahlen. Diese Kombination erfordert einen enormem verwaltungstechnischen Aufwand. In Anbetracht der unglaublichen Menge an Programmen, die notwendig ist, um die Sendezeit zu füllen, muss die Überwachung der Inhalte mit einem Höchstmaß an Effizienz umgesetzt werden.

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